History of Legal and Illegal Drugs from 1910 to 1920 A.D.

About the history of legal and illegal drugs from 1910 to 1920 A.D. in particular government acts, an Opium Convention is held, Prohibition amendment is passed banning alcohol in the U.S.

1912 A writer in Century magazine proclaims: "The relation of tobacco, especially in the form of cigarettes, and alcohol and opium is a very close one. . . . Morphine is the legitimate consequence of alcohol, and alcohol is the legitimate consequence of tobacco. Cigarettes, drink, opium, is the logical and regular series." And a physician warns: "[There is] no energy more destructive of soul, mind, and body, or more subversive of good morals, than the cigarette. The fight against the cigarette is a fight for civilization."

1912 The 1st international Opium Convention meets at The Hague, and recommends various measures for the international control of the trade in opium. Subsequent Opium Conventions are held in 1913 and 1914.

1912 Phenobarbital is introduced into therapeutics under the trade name of Luminal.

1913 The 16th Amendment, creating the legal authority for a Federal income tax, is enacted. Between 1870 and 1915, the tax on liquor provides from 1/2 to 2/3 of the whole of the internal revenue of the U.S., amounting, after the turn of the century, to about $200 million annually. The 16th Amendment thus makes possible, just 6 years later, the 18th Amendment.

1914 The Harrison Narcotic Act is enacted, controlling the sale of opium and opium derivatives.

1914 Congressman Richard P. Hobson of Alabama, urging a prohibition amendment to the Constitution, asserts: "Liquor will actually make a brute out of a Negro, causing him to commit unnatural crimes. The effect is the same on the white man, though the white man being further evolved it takes a longer time to reduce him to the same level." Negro leaders join the crusade against alcohol.

1916 The Pharmacopoeia of the United States drops whiskey and brandy from its list of drugs. Four years later, American physicians begin prescribing these "drugs" in quantities never before prescribed by doctors.

1917 The president of the American Medical Association endorses national prohibition. The House of Delegates of the association passes a resolution stating: "Resolved, The American Medical Association opposes the use of alcohol as a beverage; and be it further Resolved, That the use of alcohol as a therapeutic agent should be discouraged." By 1928, physicians make an estimated $40 million annually by writing prescriptions for whiskey.

1918 The Anti-Saloon League calls the "liquor traffic" "un-American, pro-German, crime-producing, food-wasting, youth-corrupting, home-wrecking, [and] treasonable."

1919 The 18th [Prohibition] Amendment is added to the U.S. Constitution. It is repealed in 1933.

1920 The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture publishes a pamphlet urging Americans to grow cannabis (marijuana) as a profitable undertaking.

1920-1933 The use of alcohol is prohibited in the U.S. In 1932 alone, approximately 45,000 persons receive jail sentences for alcohol offenses. During the 1st 11 years of the Volstead Act, 17,972 persons are appointed to the Prohibition Bureau, 11,982 are terminated "without prejudice," and 1,604 are dismissed for bribery, extortion, theft, falsification of records, conspiracy, forgery, and perjury.

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