Nobel Peace Prize Award for 1926 - 1935
About the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize from 1926 to 1935 including Stresemann, Jane Addams, and von Ossietzky, as well as behind the scenes information on the decision.
1926 Aristide Briand (1862-1932), French.
Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929), German. Work: Locarno Pact.
Behind the Award--A Norwegian writer, A. O. Norman, had this to say of the 1925 and 1926 Peace Prize winners: "Austen Chamberlain, who resembles his father, the imperialist, in everything but intelligence, Stresemann, who would willingly belong to the German Nationalists if he were not too canny and Briand, who can belong to anything at all, if he believes that France and himself stand to win by it." The 3 were involved in a conference in Locarno with representatives of 4 other countries to set boundaries and relations in regard to war. The Locarno Pact, the culmination of that conference, was, according to bourgeois radical and socialist groups, the result of power politics. At the time, the Weimar Republic was secretly rearming.
1927 Ferdinand E. Buisson (1841-1932), French. Work: Pacifist activities.
Ludwig Quidde (1858-1941), German. Work: Worked against secret military training; pacifist writings.
1928 No Award
1929 Frank B. Kellogg (1856-1937), American. Work: Briand-Kellogg Pact of 1928.
1930 Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931), Swedish. Work: World brotherhood through the Church.
Behind the Award--Those who didn't know that Soderblom had been a personal friend of Nobel's were puzzled at his being chosen for the prize. When Nobel was dying, Soderblom, then a young pastor, visited him often. He spoke at Nobel's funeral services. Later, Soderblom gained more importance: He became an archbishop and pacifist of some renown, and was once received in the White House by Calvin Coolidge.
1931 Jane Addams (1860-1935), American. Work: Founded women's peace organization; lectured.
Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947), American. Work: Pacifist organizing and negotiating.
Behind the Award--Butler, president of Columbia University, was in early years in favor of American military policy and had fired several professors because they were pacifists. However, he later established and ran the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. A friend of the Kaiser's, he couldn't believe that this man, who had seemed to him to be a fellow pacifist, would start W.W. I. Jane Addams, a practical idealist who started Hull House, gave her Nobel Peace Prize money, $15,755, to the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. She was about to go under ether for an operation at Johns Hopkins Hospital when she 1st heard she had won the prize.
1932 No Award
1933 Norman Angell (c. 1872-1967), British. Work: Wrote pacifist literature.
1934 Arthur Henderson (1863-1935), British. Work: Disarmament.
1935 Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938), German. Work: Founded antiwar organizations.
Behind the Award--The most courageous prize ever awarded. Ossietzky, a newspaper editor and dedicated pacifist, exposed Germany's secret rearmament and told Hitler, "Soldiers are murderers!" Hitler threw him into the Papenburg concentration camp. He was nominated for the Peace Prize by Switzerland's National Assembly, the Norwegian Labor Party, Albert Einstein, Romain Rolland, and Thomas Mann. He was opposed in Norway by Quisling and Knut Hamsun, and in Germany by Goering, who influenced the Nobel family to say that a prize to Ossietzky was not "in conformity with the founder's intentions." Nevertheless, Norway's 5 judges voted him the $39,303 Peace Prize. As a result, Hitler banned the Nobel Prizes and when the Nazis invaded Norway, they arrested the Nobel judges. Ossietzky, suffering tuberculosis, died a Nazi prisoner.
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