Nobel Peace Prize Award for 1961 - 1970

About the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize from 1961 to 1970 including Pauling, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Unicef, as well as behind the scenes information on the decision.

1961 Dag Hammarskjold (1905-1961), Swedish. Work: Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Behind the Award--Hammarskjold was nominated by Dr. Ralph Bunche and Adlai Stevenson. Before the voting, he was killed in an airplane crash in Africa. Despite Nobel's insistence that the prize go to living persons, for the 2nd time in Nobel history an award was made posthumously.

1962 Linus C. Pauling (1901- ), American. Work: Advocated banning nuclear tests.

Behind the Award--Said Life magazine, "An extraordinary insult to America. . . . However distinguished as a chemist, the eccentric Dr. Pauling and his weird politics never have been taken seriously by American opinion. Why should a committee of 5 Norwegians be so taken in, or so rude?"

1963 International Red Cross.

League of Red Cross Societies. Work: Relief work with refugees.

1964 Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), American. Work: Nonviolent resistance; civil rights.

Behind the Award--King was the youngest person ever to receive the peace award. It was felt that the Nobel committee wanted to give moral support to the equal rights movement. In his speech at the award ceremony, King said that the award had been given to him to recognize the fact that "nonviolence is the answer to the crucial political and moral question of our time--the need for men to overcome oppression and violence without resorting to violence and oppression."

1965 UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). Work: War and peace help to children.

Behind the Award--Begun in 1946 to aid children suffering from the effects of W.W. II, this organization expanded its activities to support children in developing countries, to give help to mothers and children, to direct campaigns against epidemics, to improve nutrition, and to help out in catastrophes. Its work is limited to countries whose governments ask for help and are willing to contribute equally with UNICEF. So far, government contributions have been double those of UNICEF.

1966 No Award

1967 No Award

1968 Rene Cassin (1887- ), French. Work: Wrote declaration of human rights for United Nations.

1969 International Labor Organization. Work: Reformed world working conditions.

1970 Norman E. Borlaug (1914- ), American. Work: Developed high-yield wheat.

Behind the Award--A leader in the "Green Revolution," Borlaug, an agricultural geneticist, developed in Mexico strains of disease-resistant, high-yield hybrid grain. Use of such grains improves living conditions in developing countries. He was working in the fields when news of the award reached him. "Our green miracle," he said, had brought the award to a "dirty-handed scientist." He believes that, as important as the "Green Revolution" is, it will only delay world famine unless something is done about population explosion. He planned to invest his $78,400 award in an experimental agricultural station.

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