Nobel Prize Award for Chemistry 1946 - 1955

About the winners of the Nobel Prize for chemistry from 1946 to 1955 including Pauling, Seaborg, and Giauque, what they won for, as well as behind the scenes information on the decision.

1946 James B. Sumner (1887-1955), American. Work: Discovered that enzymes can be crystallized.

John H. Northrup (1891- ), American.

Wendell M. Stanley (1904-1971), American. Work: Prepared enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form.

1947 Robert Robinson (1886-1975), British. Work: Researches on certain vegetable products, particularly alkaloids.

1948 Arne W. K. Tiselius (1902-1971), Swedish. Work: Discovered new methods of separating and detecting colloids and the serum proteins.

1949 William F. Giauque (1895- ), American (b. Canada). Work: Studied the behavior of substances at extremely low temperatures.

1950 Otto P. H. Diels (1876-1954), German.

Kurt Alder (1902-1958), German. Work: Developed the diene synthesis.

1951 Edwin M. McMillan (1907- ), American.

Glenn T. Seaborg (1912- ), American. Work: Discoveries in the field of the transuranium elements.

1952 Archer J. P. Martin (1910- ), British. Richard L. M. Synge (1914- ), British. Work: Discovered partition chromatography.

1953 Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965), German. Work: Discoveries in the chemistry of macromolecular substances.

1954 Linus C. Pauling (1901- ), American. Work: Researches into the nature of the chemical valence bond and its application to complex substances.

Behind the Award--Pauling used basic theories of quantum mechanics to propound his explanation of the valence forces binding the molecule together. Long a vehement critic of nuclear tests that sought improved ways to blow the atom apart--the antithesis of his lifelong work--he wrote No More War! in 1958 to support his beliefs. The Nobel committee awarded him the 1962 Peace Prize for his contributions to world peace, the 1st man in the history of the prizes to be given 2 awards.

1955 Vincent du Vigneaud (1901- ), American. Work: Researches on sulfur compounds, the pituitary hormones, and the 1st synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.

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