Nobel Prize Award for Physics 1941 - 1950

About the winners of the Nobel Prize for physics from 1941 to 1950 including Otto Stern, Rabi, and Blackett, what they won for, as well as behind the scenes information on the decision.

1941 No Award

1942 No Award

1943 Otto Stern (1888-1969), American (b. Germany). Work: Research into the magnetic properties of atoms and discovery of the proton's magnetic moment.

1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898- ), American (b. Austria). Work: Discovery relating to magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.

Behind the Award--A developer of the hydrogen bomb, Rabi was later a science adviser to NATO.

1945 Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958), American (b. Austria). Work: Discovering the exclusion principle in atomic theory.

1946 Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961), American. Work: Work in high-pressure physics.

1947 Edward V. Appleton (1892-1965), British. Work: Research into the physics of the upper atmosphere.

1948 Patrick M. S. Blackett (1897-1974), British. Work: Improving the Wilson cloud-chamber method and other discoveries relating to nuclear physics and cosmic rays.

Behind the Award--A few weeks before he received the award, Blackett published a book in which he said Russia had the right to turn down the U.S. plan for international atomic control. He said the arrangement favored the U.S. over Russia. After he won the prize, the British Foreign Office told the United Nations that it disowned Blackett, and, in effect, that Blackett's opinions were his own and did not represent those of the British Government.

1949 Hideki Yukawa (1907- ), Japanese. Work: Theories about the existence of mesons.

1950 Cecil F. Powell (1903-1969), British. Work: Using photography to track particles in nuclear processes.

1951 John D. Cockcroft (1897-1967), British.

Ernest T. S. Walton (1903- ), Irish. Work: Research into transmuting atom nuclei with artificially accelerated atomic particles.

1952 Felix Bloch (1905- ), American (b. Switzerland).

Edward M. Purcell (1912- ), American. Work: Development of a method of measuring magnetic fields of atomic nuclei.

1953 Frits Zernike (1888-1966), Dutch. Work: Invention of the phase-contrast microscope.

1954 Max Born (1882-1970), British (b. Germany). Work: Research in quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.

Walter Bothe (1891-1957), German. Work: Developing the coincidence method of measuring time.

1955 Willis E. Lamb, Jr. (1913- ), American. Work: Research into the structure of the hydrogen spectrum.

Polykarp Kusch (1911- ), American (b. Germany). Work: Measuring the electromagnetic properties of the electron.

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