Nobel Prize Award for Physiology and Medicine 1951 - 1960

About the winners of the Nobel Prize for physiology and medicine from 1951 to 1960 including Theiler, Beadle, and Ochoa, as well as behind the scenes information on the decision.

1951 Max Theiler (1899- ), American (b. South Africa). Work: Development of a vaccine for yellow fever.

Behind the Award--In developing his vaccine (17D virus), Theiler injected some into himself and his coworkers. He survived, but 6 other researchers got sick and died. During W.W. II, an estimated 59 million servicemen going to the tropics were protected by the vaccine, perfected in 1937.

1952 Selman A. Waksman (1888- ), American (b. Russia). Work: Discovering streptomycin, used in treating tuberculosis.

1953 Fritz A. Lipmann (1899- ), American (b. Germany).

Hans A. Krebs (1900- ), British (b. Germany). Work: Biochemical studies on the metabolism of cells, including the discovery of coenzyme A.

1954 John F. Enders (1897- ), American.

Thomas H. Weller (1915- ), American.

Frederick C. Robbins (1916- ) American. Work: Finding better ways of detecting polio viruses in tissue cultures.

Behind the Award--Neither Albert Sabin nor Jonas Salk, both of whom developed an effective polio vaccine, received a Nobel Prize.

1955 Axel Hugo Theorell (1903- ), Swedish. Work: Discoveries concerning oxidation enzymes.

1956 Dickinson W. Richards, Jr. (1895- ), American.

Andre F. Cournand (1895- ), American (b. France).

Werner Forssmann (1904- ), German. Work: Developing a technique for inserting a catheter through a vein to reach the heart.

1957 Daniel Bovet (1907- ), Italian (b. Switzerland). Work: The development of drugs for relaxing muscles.

1958 George W. Beadle (1903- ), American.

Edward L. Tatum (1909- ), American.

Joshua Lederberg (1925- ), American. Work: Discovery of the fact that genes carry hereditary traits.

1959 Severo Ochoa (1905- ), American (b. Spain).

Arthur Kornberg (1918- ), American. Work: Synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

1960 F. Macfarlane Burnet (1899- ), Australian.

Peter B. Medawar (1915- ), British (b. Brazil). Work: Discovering acquired immunity, which enables an organism to accept foreign tissues.

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