United States and American History: 1825
About the history of the United States in 1825, the push for public schools, the American Traveller published, the Erie Canal opens and the fight over Indian land.
--The working class began organizing and agitating for its children's education. Free schools for children of poor parents were considered offensive because of their obvious separation of rich and poor, calling attention to the inability of the working class to pay for its children's education.
--Glassworks at Sandwich, Mass., made glass cheaper and more standardized through the pressing process.
--Six hundred carpenters in Boston struck for a 10-hour day.
--Travel in America was aided by the publication of The American Traveller, Daniel Hewett's guide for stagecoach travelers.
Stagecoach travel was rough going. Journeys sometimes began as early as 3 A.M., but the sturdy fare at most taverns compensated for the tiresome journey. Stagecoach drivers in the U.S. didn't accept tips, but sometimes indulged in "shouldering," picking up unscheduled fares and pocketing the money. Passengers often invited the drivers to drink with them, and more often than not, the drivers accepted. Tipsy drivers, and those who couldn't resist a race, were 2 hazards travelers had to face. Often however, stage drivers were friendly and popular with the people along their routes. One driver in Massachusetts was delegated by the ladies on his route to pick out their bonnets. He was glad to oblige, seeing to it that he never purchased 2 alike. Other drivers carried messages, letters, packages and engaged in shopping for people along their routes, until the practice was so abused that it had to be ended.
--By 1825 turnpikes and canals brought cities closer together. Boston was within 2 days of New York City; New York City to Philadelphia took 11 hours; and the distance between Pittsburgh and Washington could be covered in 15 hours.
Feb. 12 Creek Indians vowed after "deep and solemn reflection" and with "one voice" not to sell one foot of their land to the Government. Several chiefs and leaders of the Creeks, however, entered into a treaty with the Government selling almost all the Creek territory within the State of Georgia and some land west of the Mississippi for $400,000.
The spurious treaty was rushed to Washington over the objection of the local Indian agent. Creek justice demanded that the traitors be punished and in May, 3 signers of the treaty, McIntosh, Tustunugge, and Hawkins, were executed. The State of Georgia was uneasy, fearing an Indian uprising. Governor Troup of Georgia rushed news of the executions to Washington, and President Adams, in an effort to get the whole truth, sent a special agent to gather facts.
Adams, convinced that 50% or more of the Creeks were not in favor of the treaty of February 12, and that they would not leave their homes unless force was used, called the chiefs to Washington. A new treaty was drafted. This one gave less land to the Federal Government, and it also allowed the Indians to remain until January, 1827.
July William H. Ashley organized the Trappers' Rendezvous in the Coche Valley north of Salt Lake. Trappers and Indians from all over the Rockies gathered to exchange their furs for goods from the East and lots of whiskey. Then they partied for 6 weeks, drinking, gambling, playing cards, swapping stories, and fornicating. Ashley departed for St. Louis with $60,000 worth of furs.
Oct. 26 Erie Canal officially opened. Freight was moved from New York City to Buffalo via the Canal for 4 cent a ton per mi.
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