United States and American History: 1901

About the history of the United States in 1901, start of the Wisconsin progressives, the Army Appropriation Bill is passed, President McKinley shot, Filipino insurrection, the 5 civilized tribes.


-Progressive Republican, Robert LaFollette, took office as governor of Wisconsin, putting into effect the "Wisconsin Idea" which served as a model of "progressive government" This provided for a direct primary in 1903, a rail road commission in 1905, opposed political bosses, and instituted tax reform.

-The Octopus, the 1st volume of a proposed 3-volume epic by Frank Norris, was published. The book depicted the struggle between the Southern Pacific Railroad and the wheat farmers in California.

Mar. 2 The Army Appropriation Bill was passed by Congress. Included in the Bill was the Platt Amendment, a provision which facilitated U.S. withdrawal from Cuba and gave the U.S. a quasi-protectorate over it. Cuba agreed to: (1) never enter into any treaty with any foreign power impairing Cuban independence; (2) authorize the U.S. to preserve Cuban independence and maintain law and order; (3) sell or lease the U.S. such lands as were necessary for naval or coaling stations. On June 12 Cuba added these provisions to its constitution; the U.S. withdrew from Cuba on May 12,1902; and in May, 1903, the Platt Amendment was added to a U.S.-Cuban treaty.

Mar. 23 Emilio Aguinaldo, leader of the Filipino rebels was captured. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War the U.S. had returned Aguinaldo to the Philippines to direct the native uprisings against the Spanish. In 1899 when the Filipinos learned the U.S. did not intend to give them their independence, Aguinaldo led an armed revolt against U.S. rule. An American force of 70,000 was sent to suppress the "insurrection." Despite the loss of their leader, the Filipinos continued the guerrilla warfare until mid-1902.

Sept. 6 President McKinley was shot in Buffalo, N.Y., by Leon Czolgosz, an American-born anarchist. McKinley died on September 14 at the age of 58. McKinley's assassination led to political tests of immigrants in order to bar anarchists. After McKinley's death William Randolph Hearst was hung in effigy, his life was threatened, and his newspapers were burned and banned at libraries and clubs due to his vicious attacks on the deceased President. (See also: Assassinations, Chap. 9.)

Sept. 14 Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President, took his oath of office.

Oct. Admission of the 5 Civilized Tribes-the Choctaw, Cherokee, Seminole, Chickasaw, and Creek-to U.S. citizenship. Forced to move from the Southeast to the Indian Territory, now Oklahoma, the 5 Civilized Tribes were pledged everlasting possession of their communally-owned domain and authority for their tribal governments. In the name of "land allotment" and liquidation, the U.S. Government through the Bureau of Indian Affairs succeeded in passing 14.5 million acres of the Indian's 16 million acres into the hands of the whites, and through successive acts of Congress it abolished tribal courts and tribal taxes, and forbade tribal legislatures to remain in session more than 30 days per year.

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