United States and American History: 1903

About the history of the United States in 1903, Souls of Black Folks published in W.E.B. DuBois, first transcontinental automobile trip, first world series.

1903

-The publication of Souls of Black Folks by W.E.B. DuBois heralded a new approach to social reform for black Americans-an approach of patriotic, nonviolent activism. DuBois attacked Booker T. Washington's ideas of work and money, his lack of emphasis on dignity and manhood, and his failure to oppose discrimination. The book met with strong opposition from the conservative voices of both the North and the South. "This book is dangerous for the Negro to read, for it will only excite discontent and fill his imagination with things that do not exist, or things that should not bear upon his mind," said the Banner in Nashville. "The problem of the 20th C. is the color line," countered DuBois.

-Dr. Helen Bradford published "The Mental Traits of Sex." After testing the physical coordination, sense of pitch, perception of light, and memory of 25 college-educated men and women, Dr. Bradford found small differences between the sexes.

-The National Women's Trade Union League was formed to combat conditions that included low wages for women and exclusion from the unions. Women's wages averaged 1/3 as much as union men.

Aug. 1 Fifty-two days after leaving San Francisco, a Packard car arrived in New York, the 1st transcontinental automobile trip.

Oct. 1-13 In baseball's 1st annual World Series, Boston of the American League defeated Pittsburgh of the National League 5 games to 3 to become the World Champions.

Nov. 3 Under the instigation of the foreign promoter of the Panama Company, and with the approval of the Roosevelt Administration, native groups from Panama revolted against Colombia. Shortly before, Colombia had rejected an agreement with the U.S. regarding the Panama Canal. On November 6, the U.S. Government recognized the Republic of Panama.

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