United States and American History: 1913

About the history of the United States in 1913, post-impressionist art comes to America, conveyor belt used to make Fords, Panama Canal is finishsed, Notre Dame creates the forward pass, Federal Reserve created.


--"The masters of Government of the U.S. are the combined capitalists and manufacturers."--President Woodrow Wilson.

Feb. 17 The 69th Regiment Armory in New York City offered an exhibition of the latest avant-garde, post-Impressionist works in U.S. and European art. Hung among the Gauguins and the Picassos was the hit of the show: Nude Descending a Staircase, by Marcel Duchamp. Few visitors could understand Duchamp's cubist painting, which projected the idea of continuous action by depicting a series of overlapping figure outlines.

Mar. 23 Easter Sunday Disaster in Middle America. The 1st of a series of death-dealing tornadoes and floods hit Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. In Dayton, O., the hardest hit, a swollen Miami River inundated downtown business areas to a depth of 12. Flood damages of over $100 million were reported, with more than 3,000 believed dead.

Summer Henry Ford, adapting the conveyer belt system in use by the meat-packing industry, began to assemble 1,000 "Model T" automobiles daily, on a continuous production line in Detroit.

Oct. 10 President Wilson, pressing an electric button at the White House, blew up the Gamboa Dike. With its destruction in the Isthmus of Panama, passage by ship through the new ocean-to-ocean Canal became possible.

Nov. 1 Upset on the Gridiron. Unknown Notre Dame jumped into national prominence by defeating mighty Army, using a new technique: Wait for the brawny forward line to charge-and then throw the football over their heads, to a downfield receiver. The "forward pass" gave small schools an incentive to take on the larger, more powerful teams, and greatly helped to popularize the game.

Dec. 23 The Carter-Owen bill established the Federal Reserve System, dividing the U.S. into 12 districts. The crowning effort of Wilson's domestic legislation, it was achieved in the face of public and private abuse from the "Money Trust," the big banks who had placed a strangle-hold on the nation's currency and credit system.

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