Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation or CPR Training Part 2

About how to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, information on breathing, circulation and cardiac arrest.


Early Warning Signals. In cases of drowning, electrical shock, suffocation, and automobile accidents, the cause of the cardiac arrest is usually obvious. However, the cause of cardiac arrest in heart attacks is often not obvious. Early warning signals in heart attacks are intense pressure, tightness, or squeezing in the center of the chest, which persists for 5 minutes or more and spreads across the chest or to either shoulder or arm, the neck or the jaw. It is associated with sweating, nausea-vomiting, shortness of breath, and faintness.

Source: "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation," ?? 1974 by the American National Red Cross, reproduced with permission.


Basic CPR is a simple procedure, as simple as A-B-C Airway, Breathing and Circulation.


If you find a collapsed person, determine if victim is conscious by shaking the shoulder and shouting "Are you all right?" If no response, shout for help. Then open the airway. If victim is not lying flat on his back, roll victim over, moving the entire body at one time as a total unit.

To open the victim's airway, lift up the neck (or chin) gently with one hand while pushing down on the forehead with the other to tilt head back. Once the airway is open, place your ear close to the victim's mouth:

* Look--at the chest and stomach for movement.

* Listen--for sounds of breathing.

* Feel--for breath on your cheek.

If none of these signs is present, victim is not breathing.

If opening the airway does not cause the victim to begin to breathe spontaneously, you must provide rescue breathing.


The best way to provide rescue breathing is by using the mouth-to-mouth technique. Take your hand that is on the victim's forehead and turn it so that you can pinch the victim's nose shut while keeping the heel of the hand in place to maintain head tilt. Your other hand should remain under the victim's neck (or chin), lifting up.

Immediately give four quick, full breaths in rapid succession using the mouth-to-mouth method.


After giving the four quick breaths, locate the victim's carotid pulse to see if the heart is beating. To find the carotid artery, take your hand that is under the victim's neck and locate the voice box. Slide the tips of your index and middle fingers into the groove beside the voice box. Feel for the pulse. Cardiac arrest can be recognized by absent breathing and an absent pulse in the carotid artery in the neck.

If you cannot find the pulse, you must provide artificial circulation in addition to rescue breathing.

Activate The Emergency Medical

Services System (EMSS) Send

someone to call 911 or Your Local

Emergency Number

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