Nobel Peace Prize Award for 1965 to 1975

About the Nobel Peace Prize Award from 1965 to 1975 including winners Unicef and Sakharov, their works, and history.

PEACE

1965 U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF)

Work: Help to children in developing countries

Nobel Laureate: UNICEF began as a temporary venture to aid those 20 million children orphaned or otherwise harmed by W.W. II. As UNICEF wound up its work in the late 1940s, the U.N. decided to extend its life long enough to tend to the children in those countries which were crawling out from under colonial rule, especially in Africa. In 1953 UNICEF attained permanent status. Although UNICEF operates only in developing countries which agree to supply matching funds and services and only when invited, and subsists solely on donations, the unit has been one of the U.N.'s biggest success stories. It has attacked simultaneously the triple threat of infectious childhood diseases, malnutrition, and illiteracy. By the time the organization received the Nobel award, it already had administered to the children of 115 developing nations with a budget stretched thin.

1966 No award

1967 No award

1968 Rene Cassin (1887- ), French

Work: Drafted, with Eleanor Roosevelt, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for the U.N.

1969 International Labor Organization

Work: Improved working conditions throughout the world

1970 Norman E. Borlaug (1914- ), American

Work: Developed high-yield strain of wheat, which greatly sped up the "green revolution"

1971 Willy Brandt (1914- ), German

Work: Ostpolitik, detente between West Germany and the Communist bloc

1972 No award

1973 Le Duc Tho (1911- ), North Vietnamese

Henry Kissinger (1923- ), American

Work: Engineered the 1973 cease-fire in Vietnam

1974 Eisaku Sato (1901-1975), Japanese

Work: Improved relations among Asian nations; negotiated the removal of nuclear weapons from U.S. bases in Okinawa

Sean MacBride (1904- ), Irish

Work: Human rights

1975 Andrei Sakharov (1921- ), Russian

Work: Advocated human rights in the U.S.S.R. and peaceful coexistence

Nobel Laureate: Sakharov, a nuclear physicist, became at 32 the youngest member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Convinced that nuclear parity would guarantee peace between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S., he worked diligently from 1950 to 1968 to help the Russians catch up in the arms race. All of a sudden, he was not so sure. Influenced by the pacifist statements of Schweitzer and Pauling, Sakharov felt partially responsible for the dangers of radioactive fallout. Courageously, he voiced his misgivings while still in the U.S.S.R. and was promptly dismissed from Soviet nuclear projects. In 1968 he issued his "Manifesto on Progress, Coexistence, and Intellectual Freedom," a ringing call for the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to move closer together politically and ideologically. To his own country, he addressed the need for personal freedoms, democracy, less red tape, and a decrease in the defense budget. In 1970 he founded the Committee for Human Rights to campaign for fair trials, free press, prison reform, an end to capital punishment, and freedom for political prisoners. Sakharov's ideals formed the basis of the human rights section of the 1975 Helsinki accords.

Nobel Lore: The first Russian to receive the peace prize, Sakharov was nominated by fellow countryman Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the 1970 winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, and others. Soviet authorities refused him permission to travel to Oslo to accept the gold medal in person, so his wife, already out of the country, accepted for him.

In 1977, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded for both 1976 and 1977.

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