Nobel Prize Award for Physics 1975 to 1976

About the Nobel Prize Award for Physics 1975 to 1976 including the scientists Bohr and Ting, their works, and history.

PHYSICS

1975 L. James Rainwater (1917- ), American

Aage N. Bohr (1922- ), Danish

Ben R. Mottleson (1926- ), Danish (b. U.S.)

Work: Discovery of motion inside nuclei and how this affects the shape of various nuclei Nobel Laureates: Born in Council, Ida., Rainwater was a research scientist on the Manhattan atomic bomb project from 1941 to 1946. He teaches physics at Columbia University and lives in Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y. Asked what he planned to do with his $47,000 share of the prize money, he shrugged and said he did not know yet. "Right now I have classes to teach," he added.

The son of Niels Bohr, who was the Nobel physics laureate the year Aage was born, Aage Bohr began his career as his father's secretary at the Los Alamos nuclear bomb project in 1948. The father-and-son team then went under the cover names of Nicholas and Jim Baker. Upon his father's death, he assumed the leadership of the Niels Bohr Institute of Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen. Bohr enjoys playing the piano to his wife's flute.

Fresh out of Harvard, Mottleson began working with Aage Bohr when the American native accepted a postdoctoral fellowship at the Bohr Institute. The two scientists have worked together ever since. A Danish citizen now, he is a widower who enjoys hikes in the woods, cycling, and swimming.

Nobel Lore: When the winners were announced, Mottleson was visiting China. Bohr sent him a telegram: "Congratulations and thanks for the fine cooperation." He left Mottleson to guess what he was being congratulated for.

1976 Samuel C.C. Ting (1936- ), American

Burton Richter (1931- ), American

Work: Discovery of a new subatomic particle Nobel Laureates: Born in Ann Arbor, Mich. . and raised in China, Ting took his physics degrees at the University of Michigan and earned a Ford fellowship to the European Nuclear Research Center in Geneva in 1963. In 1974 he flew to Stanford to inform Richter that he had stumbled across what he called a new member of the "subatomic zoo." Richter readily understood, because he had just made the same discovery. Ting called the particle "J"; Richter dubbed it "psi." A soft-spoken, contemplative scientist, Ting commutes between his job as physics professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the nuclear center in Geneva.

Brooklyn-born Richter earned his physics degrees from MIT, where Ting now works, and in 1959 joined Stanford's Linear Accelerator Center, where he now teaches physics. Although he sees no immediate practical application from his discovery, he is confident that it will help man better understand the universe. He plays squash to keep fit.

Nobel Lore: Ting and Richter shared $162,140 prize money. Ting delivered his acceptance speech in both English and Chinese. Richter took his teenage son along with him to Stockholm and loaned him the courtesy limousine to go out for hamburgers.

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