Nobel Prize Award for Physiology and Medicine 1960 to 1965

About the Nobel Prize Award for Physiology and Medicine from 1960 to 1965 including the scientists Crick and Watson, their works, and history.


1960 F. Macfarlane Burnet (1899- ), Australian

Peter B. Medawar (1915- ), British (b. Brazil)

Work: Discovered that organisms can learn to accept foreign tissues (acquired immunity)

Nobel Laureates: Burnet, a virologist, practiced at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute in Melbourne from 1923 to 1965, becoming director in 1944. The first to probe inside bacteria to examine the viruses growing there, Burnet in 1932 hit on the idea of nurturing viruses in chick embryos for study--a technique later copied by scientists all over the world. In 1949 he published the paper which would earn him the Nobel Prize. If vaccine was injected into animals while they were still embryos, Burnet predicted in his monograph, the animals' defenses would not produce antibodies to combat it.

During W.W. II, Medawar, a biologist and medical scientist, struggled with the problem of how to overcome the body's defenses while grafting skin from one person to another. Working on mice embryos, he later proved Burnet's 1949 theory of acquired immunity. The knowledge made organ transplants feasible. Since 1962 Medawar has been director of London's National Institute for Medical Research.

1961 Georg von Bekesy (1899-1972), American (b. Hungary)

Work: Studies of the inner ear

1962 Francis H. C. Crick (1916- ), British James D. Watson (1928- ), American Maurice H. F. Wilkins (1916- ), British

Work: Determined the molecular structure of DNA and its ability to transfer information in living material

1963 Alan L. Hodgkin (1914- ), British Andrew F. Huxley (1917- ), British John C. Eccles (1903- ), Australian

Work: Discoveries relating to nerve cell membranes and how chemical exchanges among them induce electrical charge

1964 Konrad E. Bloch (1912- ), American (b. Germany)

Feodor Lynen (1911- ), German

Work: Discoveries relating to the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism

1965 Francois Jacob (1920- ), French

Andre M. Lwoff (1902- ), French

Jacques L. Monod (1910-1976), French

Work: Discovery of processes in body cells which regulate enzymes and virus synthesis

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