Nobel Prize Award for Physiology and Medicine 1966 to 1971
About the Nobel Prize Award for Physiology and Medicine from 1966 to 1971 including the scientists Huggins and Ross, their works, and history.
PHYSIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
1966 Charles B. Huggins (1901- ), American (b. Canada)
Francis P. Rous (1879-1970), American
Work: Discovery of a cancer virus
Nobel Laureates: Huggins became a surgeon and quickly specialized in the treatment of genital and urinary disorders, particularly breast and prostate cancer. He discovered that these two most common cancers are directly linked to hormonal levels in the body. Working with rats and dogs, he found that by reducing the potency of male hormones in prostatic cancer victims, he was able to arrest the disease. This he achieved in humans through outright castration in some cases and, in others, by injecting female hormones to counteract their male counterparts.
In 1909 Dr. Rous joined the Rockefeller Institute in New York City, where he spent the rest of his career. The year he arrived at the institute, he began examining a cancerous hen, and the following year he discovered that the particular cancer present in the fowl, a cancer known as sarcoma, was a virus capable of being passed from animal to animal. The scientific community of the day pooh-poohed the idea of such a contagious cancer, but later studies corroborated Rous's findings.
Nobel Lore: As late as the 1950s, few scientists put much stock in Rous's chicken experiments. But with the discovery of other cancer viruses, the Nobel committee finally came around--56 years after Rous first focused his microscope over the truth--and acknowledged the value of his early work.
1967 Haldan Keffer Hartine (1903- ), American
George Wald (1906- ), American
Ragnar A. Granit (1900- ), Swedish (b. Finland)
Work: Discoveries concerning the physiological and chemical processes of the eye
1968 Robert W. Holley (1922- ), American
H. Gobind Khorana (1922- ), American (b. India)
Marshall W. Nirenberg (1927- ), American
Work: Discovered the role of enzymes in the genetic code, which determines the function of cells
1969 Max Delbruck (1906- ), American (b. Germany)
Alfred D. Hershey (1908- ), American
Salvador E. Luria (1912- ), American (b. Italy)
Work: Discoveries concerning the genetic structure of viruses
1970 Bernard Katz (1911- ), British
Ulf von Euler (1905- ), Swedish
Julius Axelrod (1912- ), American
Work: Discoveries concerning nerve transmission
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. (1915-1974), American
Work: Discoveries concerning the action of hormones
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