Psychic Phenomenon and History Psychokinesis or Telekinesis Part 1
About the psychic phenomenon clairvoyance also known as psychokinesis or telekinesis, history and cases of the gift.
PROBING THE PSYCHIC WORLD
Psychokinesis is the ability of the human mind to affect matter. It can express itself in various ways. In a laboratory, psychokinesis (or PK) is tested by having a subject's will influence the fall of a pair of dice; in other settings, as in so-called poltergeist phenomena, items in a household move, fly, or fall mysteriously, apparently influenced by the unconscious thought of a household member, usually an adolescent. Earlier researchers referred to such phenomena as "telekinesis." Psychokinesis may be related to the mind's influence on the body, as observed in psychosomatic medicine.
In the late 1960s, a young Cuban-born stock clerk in a Miami souvenir warehouse seemed to cause an unusually high percentage of breakage. When he was present, mugs would fall off shelves and shatter on the floor. Even while he was being watched, items flew off their shelves in another part of the warehouse and broke. The young man (let's call him Juan) seemed to have no conscious control over these events. Investigators did not find that he resorted to trickery. Among those who studied the phenomena first hand was William G. Roll, project director of the Psychical Research Foundation of Durham, N.C. As an acknowledged expert on poltergeist phenomena, Mr. Roll made sure that no conjuring devices, such as invisible black threads, were being used by Juan, and that no one else caused the PK phenomena. Eventually, the young man was taken to Durham, where his psychokinetic ability, tested in the laboratory of the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, was found to be above average.
The best-known subject of apparent PK has been the Israeli psychic Uri Geller, whose demonstrations have included the bending of forks and spoons, the repair of broken watches seemingly by willpower, and a variety of other PK-type phenomena ranging from stopping electronic instruments to Geller's picturesque claim that he changed water into wine. Because of his early career as a stage magician, Geller has been accused by professional conjurers of using trickery while pretending to wield extrasensory powers. Nevertheless, his performances all over the world have stirred wide interest and prompted others to perform or claim similar feats. Children all the way from England to Japan have imitated his bending performances. Geller was tested at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, Calif., where researchers found him a difficult but challenging subject.
LEADING RESEARCHERS IN THE FIELD
As in all areas of extrasensory perception (ESP), the laboratory work pioneered by Dr. J. B. Rhine of Durham, N.C., has established standards of design, control, and analysis in psychokinesis. The Rhine techniques are a direct outgrowth of observing gamblers "talking to" dice and urging them ("Come seven, come eleven!") to fall in a certain way. From initially playful and inevitably haphazard throwing of dice, Rhine developed machinery and statistical methods of recording that eliminated such elements as uneven, or "loaded," dice and the conscious or unconscious manipulation of dice by a subject. The Rhine laboratory developed a wire cage that is spun electrically when the subject pushes a button while "wishing" the dice to fall a certain way. Some subjects, such as Juan, show distinct psychokinetic ability, expressed in higher-than-average results. Much of the laboratory's PK equipment has been developed by W. E. Cox.
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