World History 1848 Part 2

About the history of the world in 1848, the June days worker's revolution and Seneca Falls Women's Rights Conventions are held, trouble in Rome.

TWO CENTURIES OF WORLD HISTORY: 1778-1978

1848

Mar. 15 In Budapest, Lajos Kossuth's Hungarian nationalist party passed the April Laws declaring Hungary constitutionally separate from the Austrian Empire.

Mar. 18-22 In Milan, republican rebels expelled the Austrian garrison and set up a republican government.

Mar. 22 In Venice, Daniele Manin led a successful one-day revolution against the Austrians and formed a republic.

June 23-26 A workers' revolution, called the June Days, broke out in Paris. The newly elected government of France, the Constituent Assembly-which was dominated by the middle classes-established a work-relief program known as the National Workshops. There were about 200,000 unemployed in Paris, with some 120,000 enrolled in the National Workshops digging ditches. The workshops became centers of socialist agitation and organization, and when the government attempted to dissolve them, the workers issued a call for a social republic.

The Constituent Assembly mobilized the loyal National Guard and the regular army. On the 23rd, workers demonstrating at the Place de la Bastille agreed to arm themselves and go to the barricades. General Cavaignac, commanding the Guard and the professional army, waged a ruthless street-by-street war against the more than 20,000 workers who took up arms. After four days of urban warfare, the revolution was crushed: 1,460 people died, almost 10,000 were wounded, and 11,000 rebel prisoners were deported to French African and Asian colonies.

The June Days marked the turning point of the revolution; counterrevolution now took the offensive throughout Europe. The bloody repression of the working classes generated deep class hatreds in French society, which erupted into bloodshed again in 1851 and 1871.

July 19 The Women's Rights Convention, the first in world history, was held in Seneca Falls, N.Y., organized by Sarah and Angelina Grimke, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The 300 conventioneers drew up the Seneca Falls Declaration, which propounded female equality and woman suffrage. In the keynote address, Lucretia Mott said, "Man cannot fulfill his destiny alone, he cannot redeem his race unaided....The world has never yet seen a truly great and virtuous nation, because in the degradation of woman the very fountains of life are poisoned at their source."

Aug. The Austrian army captured Milan, defeating the republican revolutionaries.

Sept. 12 Switzerland adopted a new federal constitution patterned after that of the U.S. It established a centralized federal government to replace the Diet, which had been a loose confederation of the different cantons.

Oct. 7 Revolution in Vienna caused the imperial court and government to flee. The city was left in the hands of the revolutionaries.

Oct. 28-31 Austrian General Windisch-Graetz, the "Bombardment Prince," besieged and shelled Vienna. The Viennese rebels surrendered the city after four days of bombardment and ground assaults.

Nov. 15-16 In Rome, soldiers of the Lombard Volunteers stabbed to death Papal Minister Pellegrino Rossi. The next day a popular rebellion coerced Pope Pius IX into appointing a republican government.

Nov. 25 Pope Pius, disguised as an ordinary priest, fled Rome because of growing radical agitation.

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