World History 1870

About the history of the world in 1870, the Franco-Prussian War begins, the pope is declared infallible, Rockefeller consolidates Standard Oil.



* The 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, guaranteeing citizens the right to vote regardless "of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Sex discrimination in voting rights remained unchanged.

* John D. Rockefeller, 31, of Cleveland, consolidated his oil-related holdings, including refineries, timber tracts, cooperages, sulfuric acid plants, warehouses, tankers, and wagons, into a joint-stock company called Standard Oil of Ohio.

* British forces put down without bloodshed the Red River Rebellion in Western Canada. The rebellion had been led by Louis Riel, who opposed attempts to make Manitoba a Canadian province.

* Baron Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskjold, 38, of Sweden, explored the interior of Greenland.

* The Franco-Prussian War broke out, culminating in the four-month siege of Paris, which ended Jan. 28, 1871. As a result, the 18-year-old Second Empire of Napoleon III crumbled, and the Third French Republic began its run.

* Italy became a unified kingdom when French troops were forced to abandon their defense of the Papal States in Rome in order to fight at the Prussian front. Italian forces met a token resistance from the papal guard but easily overcame it. Rome became the new capital of Italy.

* The Vatican Council convening under Pope Pius IX declared the pope infallible whenever "he defines with his supreme apostolic authority a doctrine concerning faith and morals to be held by the Universal Church."

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