World History 1918
About the history of the world in 1918, Woodrow Wilson unveils his 14 point plan, Eugene V. Debs is convicted, Germany surrenders ending World War I.
TWO CENTURIES OF WORLD HISTORY: 1778-1978
* The U.S. Post Office confiscated and burned copies of The Little Review containing an episode of James Joyce's Ulysses. Authorities had deemed the work obscene.
Jan. 8 Pres. Woodrow Wilson, addressing a joint session of Congress, laid out his 14-point plan for a lasting peace. It called for:
1. An open peace treaty with no secret agreements
2. Freedom of the high seas
3. An end to discriminatory trade practices among nations
4. General arms reduction
5. Fair adjustment of colonial claims with the desires of the inhabitants to count at least as much as the claims of the rival powers
6. Evacuation and resettlement of all occupied Russian territory
7. The restored sovereignty of Belgium
8. The restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France
9. Readjustment of the Italian border along clearly recognized lines of nationality
10. Carving up Austria-Hungary according to nationality
11. Restoration of the Balkan States according to nationality
12. Stripping the Ottoman Empire of all non-Turkish entities and freedom of navigation through the Dardanelles
13. An independent Poland with access to the sea
14. A League of Nations
Mar. An influenza epidemic began at Fort Riley, Kans., and spread around the globe. Although it disappeared in a few months, the flu claimed 21.6 million lives.
Aug. 12 The first regular airmail service began between New York City and Washington, D.C.
Sept. Socialist leader Eugene V. Debs, 63, was tried and convicted under the wartime Espion-age Act in Cleveland. The indictment arose from an antiwar speech he had delivered in Canton, O., in which he denounced the flood of sedition prosecutions brought by the government. "They cannot put the Socialist movement in jail," he had said that day, but they did put its leader behind bars. Addressing the jury himself, Debs explained his position: "I admit being opposed to the present form of government; I admit being opposed to the present social system. I am doing what little I can to do away with the rule of the great body of people by a relatively small class and establish in this country industrial and social democracy." His words fell on deaf ears. Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison and accepted a pardon from President Harding at the end of 1921.
Sept. 18 Bulgaria surrendered to French, British, and Serbian armies.
Oct. Turkey surrendered to Britain.
Nov. 3. Austria-Hungary collapsed before Italian, British, and French forces pouring in from Italy.
Nov. 4 Wholesale mutiny in the German navy spread to the other armed forces of that country.
Nov. 9 Workers in Berlin left their factories and marched on the center city in revolt.
Nov. 11 Germany surrendered. Kaiser Wilhelm II, after 30 years of rule, abdicated and fled to Holland, where he successfully fought extradition on war charges and lived in retirement until his death in 1941. The grim statistics of W.W. I: 10 million men killed, 21 million wounded at an aggregate cost of $350 billion.
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